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with the traditional form of setting up and managing CCs is that they are
often underspeciﬁed and the ability to manually track their status is restricted.
As there is no concrete overview of the CC-status, the contractual relationship
between parties is prone to conﬂict. The resulting costly conﬂict resolutions may
even collapse an entire contractual relationship. Also the enforcement of CCs 
proves to be either too complicated, time consuming, or impossible, certainly in
The authors in  recognize that shared blockchain technology enables busi-
ness collaborations that require high-reliability and shared, trusted, privacy-
preserving, immutable data repositories for smart contracts. So-called business
artifacts for adopting data-aware processes provide a basis on shared blockchains
that enable business-collaboration languages such a Solidity  of Ethereum.
In , the authors map a running case of a collaborative process ont...
2 Background Literature and Running Case
In section 2.1 we present related literature that prepares the reader for subse-
quent sections. Section 2.2 contains a running contract case that stems from
real-life apartment-renting contracts. Note that we use the terms beneﬁciary for
creditor and obligor for debtor.
2.1 Related Work
Scholarly literature about SACs exists. In , the core elements of legislation are
addressed, including duties and obligations that share intersecting properties.
The characteristic of a duty is the absence of a beneﬁting party (beneﬁciary),
while the performance of an obligation serves a beneﬁcial result for a determined
beneﬁciary. The focus of the whitepaper is on obligations the properties of which
Figure 1 informally depicts.
Informal properties of an obligation.
The properties in Figure 1 show a micro-process for obligations development
using the business-process modeling notation BPMN ....
In contract law, rights and obligations are related so that if one party to
the contract decides to use his right, there is a corresponding obligation on the
other party. Rights that stem from the contract are reﬂected in obligations of
the other party. Figure 2 depicts a micro-lifecycle of rights speciﬁcations. After
determining the beneﬁciary of a right, there can either be a right to claim, or a
right to do something that pertains to an action type and object. Finally, the
obligors must be determined who enable a right. For example, the lessee has a
payment obligation in a rental contract. In case of a late payment, the lessor has
the right to claim late-payment charges. After invoking that right, the lessee has
an obligation to pay.
Orchestration and choreography protocols that facilitate, verify and enact
agreements between consenting parties are termed smart contracts [23, 40, 45].
The latter initially ﬁnd application in diverse domains such as ﬁnancial te...
and new UTXOs are spent and created in the transaction chain. The UTXO of a
Bitcoin transaction is unlocked by the private key that is used to sign a modiﬁed
version of a transaction. In the Bitcoin network, miners generate Bitcoins with a
process called a coinbase transaction, which does not contain any inputs. Bitcoin
uses a scripting language for transactions with a limited set of operations
the Bitcoin network, the scripting system processes data by stacks (Main Stack
and Alt Stack), which is an abstract data type following the LIFO principle of
In , the authors deﬁne an ontology that allows for a rapid validation of
the concepts and properties existing contracting languages comprise
. A state-
of-the-art formalization means of ontologies is to use the web ontology language
OWL . The latter organizes class hierarchies and allows practitioners to ﬁnd
a common semantical understanding about...
of a business policy occurs, the non-violating eCommunity parties must vote on
the perceived severity. The outcome options are either calming for the ongo-
ing contract enactment, or disruptive. The former maintain the enactment and
comprises voting outcomes, such as ignoring a violation, or replacements of a
business rules, service oﬀers, an eCommunity party with a new one, and so on.
Calming reactions require to varying degrees a destruction of ﬂowing business
semantics for rolling back the remaining subset to earlier contract-lifecycle stages
in a targeted way. A disruptive voting outcome leads to a sudden termination of
an ongoing enactment as the business-rule violation is perceived as too severe.
The rollback results in a new negotiation for starting another contract, unless
the business case seizes to exist.
The potential conﬂicts that occur between decentralized autonomous agents
(DAO), require speciﬁc modeling, management and resolution . The manage- ...
2.2 Running case
A user story depicted in Figure 3 describes a process of making a rental agree-
ment based on activities of a lessor and a lessee. Lessor is a person who is a
property owner or a person who represents a property owner and has a right
to make a rental agreement on behalf of an owner. We call him John. Property
in this use case scenario is what in legal terms is called an immovable, i.e., a
plot of land and anything permanently attached to the plot of land, such as a
house, an apartment, a condo or some other type of premises such as a garage,
a parking lot, a shed, i.e., it is a space that can be rented out. Property can also
be movable in legal terms such as, e.g., a trailer, or a tool. Lessee is a person
who is looking for property to rent for a long or a short period of time. We call
(a) contract initiation
must be included in the contract. The apartment has to be speciﬁed so that
its condition and status becomes colloquially apparent and formally deﬁned for
John and Mary. The object of the contract is deﬁned by characteristics of the
apartment such as location (address), size (square meters), intended purpose,
e.g., for living, storing, work and for instance whether a parking space or a
storage room outside this apartment is included.
Traditionally, Mary looks for information about apartments for rent from the
Internet, or she employs a real estate agent to negotiate terms of the contract
with John. This means she must spend time to look for information, make calls
and visits to ﬁnd a suitable apartment to rent. A real estate agent would charge
a fee for his services.
The Agrello system provides an innovative approach. During the negotiation
phase, John has predeﬁned essential terms of the contract (characteristics of the
rental object, time, price and rati...
a legal context. For example, Solidity does not comprise language constructs that
resemble obligations and rights pertaining to the parties of a contract.
The purpose of CCs is to establish relationships and to govern the behavior
of contracting people, which requires sound constructs of obligations and rights.
With the emergence of CPS, smart contracts require the capability of reasoning
about rights and obligations, which the involvement of BDI-agents enables. Thus
we yield thereby SACs with scalable socio-technical application scenarios where
humans use technology for solving problems collaboratively. In CCs, a lawyer has
to look at a contract to check if a deadline was missed, or an obligation breached.
Self-awareness in this sense means that both entities, the CC and lawyer, merge
into one artifact being a software agent that comprises contract logics in the
form of machine-readable obligations. More precisely, the agent can deduce, e.g.,
missed deadlines f...