Empowering billions by utilizing a global and transparent data exchange.
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Dominium Blockchain – The one-stop-platform for everything to do with property anywhere in the world!
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FOAM is an open protocol for proof of location on Ethereum. Our mission is to build a consensus driven map of the world, empowering a fully decentralized web3 economy with verifiable location data. FOAM incentivizes the infrastructure needed for privacy-preserving and fraud-proof location verification. The starting point for FOAM is static proof of location, where a community of Cartographers curate geographic Points of Interest on the FOAM map. Through global community-driven efforts, FOAM’s dynamic proof of location protocol will enable a permissionless and privacy-preserving network of radio beacons that is independent from external centralized sources and capable of providing secure location verification services.
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The Consensus Driven
Map of the World
FOAM is an open protocol for decentralized,
geospatial data markets. The protocol
is designed to empower users to build a
consensus-driven map of the world that can
be trusted for every application. As technology
evolves and changes, maps need to change
too. FOAM secures physical space on the
blockchain, harnessing the power of Ethereum
with a cryptographic software utility token
used to provide computational work and
verification to the network.
The component elements of the FOAM
protocol are designed to provide spatial
protocols, standards and applications that
bring geospatial data to blockchains and
empower a consensus-driven map of the
world. Token mechanisms and crypto-
economics underpin the elements of FOAM
and empower the distributed users to
coordinate and interact in a decentralized and
Table of contents
The thinking behind FOAM is that users should own their personal location information,
controlling when and with whom they choose to share their location. FOAM is committed to
solving this need by providing spatial protocols, standards, and applications that offer a higher
level of security and resiliency than conventional geospatial technologies and location-based
Location-based services have augmented both urban and rural life, changing how people get
around and how products get to people. In the future, the world’s collective critical infrastructure
will rely even more heavily on spatial information, from stock exchanges to autonomous vehicles
and the internet of things. Blockchains have emerged to enable cryptographically secure
transactions and distribute risks through peer to peer networks without the need for a trusted
third party. Blockchains have the potential to enable secure and self-regulating emergent
infrastructures of the future.
Location Encoding, User
Experience and Verification
There are three problems in relation to existing spatial protocols
that FOAM sets out to solve which are intended to assist users
and developers of blockchain, smart contract and location-
verification based projects and services.
These problems relate
to (i)location encoding standards, (ii) user experience for
spatial applications, and (iii) secure verification about the
authenticity of location data.
Each of the component elements
of FOAM is designed to address its corresponding problem, (a)
Crypto-Spatial Coordinates, (b) the Spatial Index and Visualizer,
and (c) Proof of Location.
Currently, there are no established standards for embedded locations, physical addresses,
or coordinates in smart contracts. Further, there is no open way to verify geospatial data.
For smart contracts to remain interoperable, they need a shared language for them to
reference and index the...
cars. Currently, Google dominates consumer mapping, followed by HERE, a company jointly
owned by the largest German automotive companies, and TomTom, known for standalone
Global Positioning System (
) units, lagging behind.
And that’s a problem, since whoever
controls the map defines how we navigate the world. Even more so for applications that require
consensus-driven and verifiable geospatial data.
Alternative addressing systems have attempted to increase human memorability, verifiability
and machine readability. Notable examples are What3words and Open Location Code. However,
attempts to create a broadly accepted standard around them have failed to materialize as
these systems are either proprietary, like Google, and/or open source projects lacking economic
incentives. What3Words uses unique three-word addresses to divide the world into a grid of
squares. In its system, an address such as Banana.Radio.Scent could describe an area ...
Similar to a need for a location encoding standard, there also needs to be able to interact,
visualize and reason about the data with an advanced user experience. Examples of such
interfaces exist for centralized geospatial data sets, which are not compatible with open
blockchain infrastructure. Additionally, there are no open user experience standards for
visualizing geospatial data from a blockchain.
Numerous blockchain projects’ use cases have or will need visual mapping
tools for smart contracts such as:
For any of these blockchain applications a map or visualization component is crucial. Currently
there are no blockchain tools for geospatial data. FOAM aims to provide a solution to this.
Currently there is no reliable and trusted location verification service. It is problematic to rely on
Civil GPS is unencrypted, it has no proof-of-origin or authentication features, and despite dire
warnings first raised in 2012, the system remains extremely susceptible to fraud, spoofing,
jamming, and cyberattack.
Operational Control System (
), the putative next generation
of GPS “will be the first satellite control system designed after the advent of significant jamming
and other cyber threats.” However, the project has been continuously delayed, with a scheduled
launch date now in 2022. Even so, the OCX design fails to address vulnerabilities, “GPS
competitiveness as a worldwide civil system will diminish.”
The limitations of GPS require at least four beacon signals to be overhead, which makes
indoor localization nearly impossible. Urban density and skyscrapers also cause diﬀiculties in
receiving four messages and the issue of multi-path signals occurs within the vicinity of high rise
buildings. Further, for a device, it can take multiple minutes to acquire an a...
Spatial Index Visualization,
Proof of Location
Crypto-Spatial Coordinates —
the open location standard on Ethereum
The FOAM Crypto-Spatial Coordinate (
) is a starting point for this shared location standard,
allowing any smart contract to make an immutable claim to an address on the blockchain and a
corresponding location on the map. Crypto-Spatial Coordinates are Ethereum smart contract
addresses with corresponding addresses positioned in physical space that are verifiable
both on- and off-chain. This allows for physical addresses in the built environment to have a
corresponding smart contract address that is accessible for decentralized applications. The
protocol uses the geohash standard as a basis for this construction because of its conceptual
and mathematical simplicity. Another benefit of the geohash standard is that it is in the public
The CSC standard can be adopted by any smart contract to make a clai...
Properties of the CSC
The protocol encodes a CSC as a hash with inputs consisting of:
1. A geohash.
2. A corresponding Ethereum address.
A key property of the CSC is that it is verifiable both on- and off-chain. This means:
A smart contract can make an immutable claim to a specific location and receive a unique iden
tifier, a CSC, which contains permanent information about both location and the blockchain
Any user can verify off chain if a CSC is where it claims to be by visiting the location, and
verifying the information on the blockchain.
3. Any other smart contract is able to reference the registry of all CSCs and determine any
particular contract’s physical location and blockchain address.
4. Two smart contracts should be able to compute their location and spatial relationship be-
tween themselves on-chain with the data provided by the CSC standard.
The approximate resolution of a CSC is one square meter. This resolution allows for a ...